La Emperatriz del Adiós. Maximilian I (Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph Maria, Spanish: Fernando Maximiliano José María de Habsburgo-Lorena; 6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867) was an Austrian archduke who reigned as the only Emperor of the Second Mexican Empire from 10 April 1864 until his execution on 19 June 1867. [17] Nonetheless, Maximilian was very popular. *, Político y héroe nacional mexicano1806/03/21 - 1872/07/18, Emperador de Austria (1848-1916) y rey de Hungría (1867-1916) 1830/08/18 - 1916/11/21, Militar y político mexicano1826/01/16 - 1902/05/22, Ingeniero y cartógrafo mexicano1833/01/21 - 1889/05/19, Presidente mexicano1804/05/23 - 1877/10/03, Militar y diplomárico mexicano1803/05/15 - 1869/03/21, Político y militar mexicanoUnknown - Unknown. Carlota en México. [41], Meanwhile, Maximilian invited ex-Confederates to move to Mexico in a series of settlements called the "Carlota Colony" and the New Virginia Colony, with a dozen others being considered, a plan conceived by the internationally renowned U.S. Navy oceanographer and inventor Matthew Fontaine Maury. It is calculated that more than eleven thousand of Juarez's supporters were executed as a result of the decree, but in the end it only inflamed the Mexican resistance. Sabías que... If found guilty, even though only of the fact of belonging to an armed band, they shall be condemned to capital punishment, and the sentence shall be executed within twenty-four hours". La india bonita With the support of the French army and a group of Conservative Party monarchists hostile to the Liberal Party administration of President Benito Juárez, Maximilian accepted the crown of Mexico on 10 April 1864.[2]. Conoce la trágica historia de Maximiliano de Habsburgo, el segundo y último emperador de México, un hombre de noble y admirable carácter que fue víctima de terribles circunstancias. Presidente de México May my blood, which is about to be shed, be for the good of the country. Withdrawing, in February 1867, to Santiago de Querétaro, he sustained a siege for several weeks, but on 11 May resolved to attempt an escape through the enemy lines. [citation needed] The Emperor Maximilian Memorial Chapel was constructed on the hill where his execution took place. Se pensaba que el establecimiento de una monarquía, con un líder que posee una probada y verdadera línea de sangre europea, podría dar una cierta estabilidad muy necesaria a la nación desgarrada por los conflictos. [citation needed], In the wake of his death, carte-de-visite cards with photographs commemorating his execution circulated both among his followers and among those who wished to celebrate his death. [40] The prospect of an American invasion to reinstate Juárez caused a large number of Maximilian's loyal adherents to abandon his cause and leave the capital. He also initiated a large-scale scientific expedition (1857–1859) during which the frigate SMS Novara became the first Austrian warship to circumnavigate the globe. Esta historia nunca pudo ser comprobada. Si tiene dudas en cuanto al nombre o apellidos use las primeras letras, ejemplo. This was crucial, as sea power had never been a priority of Austrian foreign policy, and the navy itself was relatively little known or supported by the public. Príncipe de la casa de Habsburgo y hermano del emperador austríaco Francisco José.Cuando aún era muy joven contrajo matrimonio con la hija de los reyes de Bélgica, la princesa Carlota Amelia. [13] Most of Maximilian's day was spent in study. [9] Intelligent, ambitious and strong-willed, Sophie had little in common with her husband, whom historian Richard O'Conner characterized as "an amiably dim fellow whose main interest in life was consuming bowls of dumplings drenched in gravy". [38], To the dismay of his conservative allies, Maximilian upheld several liberal policies proposed by the Juárez administration, such as land reforms, religious freedom, and extending the right to vote beyond the landholding classes. [30] They received a blessing from Pope Pius IX, and Queen Victoria ordered the Gibraltar garrison to fire a salute for Maximilian's passing ship. This page was last edited on 24 October 2020, at 20:16. Maximiliano era segundo en la línea de sucesión a la corona imperial de Austria Hungría pero renunció a ellos cuando se le ofreció el trono de México. [39], After the end of the American Civil War, President Andrew Johnson invoked the Monroe Doctrine and recognized the Juarez government as the legitimate government of Mexico. [28] On 20 October 1861 in Paris, Maximilian received a letter from Gutierrez de Estrada asking him to take the Mexican throne. Coleccionista de mariposas, a las que cazaba en expediciones al interior del país mientras su esposa se quedaba al frente del gobierno.Sus ideas liberales lo llevaron a aplicar algunas medidas a las propuestas por Benito Juárez en las Leyes de Reforma, lo que le acarreó el disgusto de las autoridades eclesiásticas y grupos conservadores. When he entered military service, he was trained in the Imperial Austrian Navy. That year, Napoleon III withdrew his troops in the face of Mexican resistance and U.S. opposition under the Monroe Doctrine, as well as to strengthen his forces at home to face the ever-growing Prussian military and Bismarck. [38] It was all a charade directed at his brother Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria, as Maximilian explained himself: either Karl would give him one of his sons as an heir, or else he would bequeath everything to the Iturbide children. Washington began supplying partisans of Juárez and his ally Porfirio Díaz by "losing" arms depots to them at El Paso del Norte at the Mexican border. Su breve gobierno se caracterizó por el desastre financiero, la debilidad política y la traición. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Su educación fue muy sofisticada tal como ocurría con todos los miembros de la casa de Austria. The royal couple made plans to be crowned at the Catedral Metropolitana, but due to the constant instability of the regime, the coronation was never carried out. [14] The disciplines were diverse, ranging from history, geography, law and technology, to languages, military studies, fencing and diplomacy. This renunciation followed an extended period of negotiations between the two brothers and was agreed to by Maximilian with reluctance. Although he was a charming boy, he was also undisciplined. Casa Real [citation needed], Articles related to Maximilian I of Mexico. Generations are numbered by male-line descent from the first archdukes. El trágico destino del emperador Maximiliano y su mujer Carlota. Miguel de Grecia (2000). [4][5] He was baptized the following day as Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph. However, Maximilian changed his mind after the French intervention in Mexico. Its first article stated that: "All individuals forming a part of armed bands or bodies existing without legal authority, whether or not proclaiming a political pretext, whatever the number of those forming such band, or its organization, character, and denomination, shall be judged militarily by the courts martial. Te presentamos la biografía de Maximiliano de Habsburgo, uno de los personajes más emblemáticos de la historia de nuestro país. Maximilian and Miramón died almost immediately, the emperor calling out the single word hombre, but Mejía's death was a more extended one. ¡Viva México!" [49], After his execution, Maximilian's body was embalmed and displayed in Mexico. In the 1939 film The Mad Empress he was played by Conrad Nagel. Maximilian was born on 6 July 1832 in the Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna, capital of the Austrian Empire. In theater, he appeared in the play Juarez and Maximilian by Franz Werfel, which was presented at Berlin in 1924, directed by Max Reinhardt. Fernando Maximiliano José nació en un palacio ubicado en la ciudad austríaca de Viena el 6 de julio de 1832. [50], Maximilian has been praised by some historians for his liberal reforms, genuine desire to help the people of Mexico, refusal to desert his loyal followers, and personal bravery during the siege of Querétaro. [31], The new emperor of Mexico landed at Veracruz on 29 May 1864,[32] and received a cold reception from the townspeople. Carlota travelled to Europe, seeking assistance for her husband's regime in Paris and Vienna and, finally, in Rome from Pope Pius IX. Por recomendación de Napoleón III, aceptó la corona imperial de México. Maximilian was especially interested in maritime matters and undertook many long-distance journeys (for Brazil) on the frigate Elisabeth. There was continuous fighting between the French expeditionary forces (who were supplemented by Maximilian's locally recruited imperial troops) on one side and the Mexican Republicans on the other. [52], The composer Franz Liszt included a "Marche funèbre, en mémoire de Maximilian I, empereur de Mexique" (a funeral march, in memory of Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico) among the pieces in his famous collection of piano pieces entitled Années de pèlerinage. [6][7] His father was Archduke Franz Karl, the second surviving son of Emperor Francis I, during whose reign he was born. He was joyful, highly charismatic and able to captivate those around him with ease. [A], Adhering to traditions inherited from the Spanish court during Habsburg rule, Maximilian's upbringing was closely supervised. Su derrota final y ejecución demostraron claramente que México no aceptaría a un príncipe extranjero. Segundo Imperio MéxicanoEl 28 de mayo de 1864, Maximiliano de Habsburgo arribó al puerto de Veracruz en compañía de su esposa, la emperatriz Carlota, a bordo de la fragata de guerra Novara. Su derrota final y ejecución demostraron claramente que Méxicono aceptaría a un príncipe extranjero. One such card featured a photograph of the shirt he wore to his execution, riddled with bullet holes. "¡Que mi sangre selle las desgracias de mi nueva patria! Felix Salm-Salm and his wife masterminded a plan and bribed the jailors to allow Maximilian to escape execution. Archiduque de Austria y el emperador de México, un hombre cuyo ingenuo liberalismo resultó ser desigual a las intrigas internacionales que lo habían colocado en el trono y a las brutales luchas dentro de México que lo llevar… Biografía de Maximiliano I de México. [26], On 27 July 1857, in Brussels, Archduke Maximilian married his second cousin Charlotte, the daughter of Leopold I of Belgium and Louise of Orléans. Following a court-martial, he was sentenced to death. [8] His mother was Princess Sophie of Bavaria, a member of the House of Wittelsbach. [45], Though urged to abandon Mexico by Napoleon III himself, whose troop withdrawal from Mexico was a great blow to the Mexican Imperial cause, Maximilian refused to desert his followers. Maximilian fought on with his army of 8,000 Mexican loyalists. Nacido el 6 de julio de 1832 – Fallecido el 19 de junio de 1867. Era un archiduque de la Casa de Habsburgo, hermano del emperador austriaco Francisco José I y yerno del rey belga Leopoldo I.Su nombre completo fue Fernando Maximiliano José María de Austria, y también es referido en algunas fuentes como Maximiliano de Habsburgo. Maximiliano de Habsburgo - 3 Museos the Spanish throne was inherited by the Bourbons, Knight of the Collar of the Holy Sepulchre, "Maximilian; Star Crossed Emperor of Mexico", Belgium Mourns for Dead Empress; Tragedy of Life of Charlotte, Wife of Maximilian, Is Recalled, "Homage to the Martyrs of the Second Mexican Empire", Laughlin, Eleanor A. Abandonado por estos y por Napoleón III fue incapaz de sostenerse.EjecuciónSe rindió en Querétaro al General Mariano Escobedo y fue capturado y fusilado en el Cerro de las Campanas junto a los conservadores Miguel Miramón y Tomás Mejía el 19 de junio de 1867. [29], In April 1864, Maximilian stepped down from his duties as chief of Naval Section of the Austrian Navy. "¡Que mi sangre selle las desgracias de mi nueva patria! Benito Juárez They lived in Milan, the capital of Lombardy-Venetia, from 1857 until 1859, when Emperor Franz Joseph, angered by his brother's liberal policies, dismissed him. "[48] Generals Miramón and Mejía standing to Maximilian's right, were killed by the same volley as the emperor, fired by the fifteen-man (twenty-one in other accounts) execution party. [37] Apparently, the royal couple intended to groom Agustín as heir to the throne. Object Narrative. [10] Despite their different personalities, the marriage was fruitful, and after four miscarriages, four sons – including Maximilian – would reach adulthood. Maximiliano I de México fue el segundo Emperador de México, nacido en Viena con el título de Archiduque de Austria por su relación con la Casa de Habsburgo. Virrey de Lombardia-Venecia Político inglés Considerado uno de los hombres más influyentes de la historia. [43][44], Nevertheless, by 1866, the imminence of Maximilian's abdication seemed apparent to almost everyone outside Mexico. In other accounts, Maximilian calmly said, "aim well", to the firing squad and met his death with dignity. [citation needed], In his political views, Archduke Maximilian was very much influenced by the progressive ideas in vogue at the time. Maximiliano de Habsburgo(1832-1867) fue un archiduque austríaco y emperador de México. Although he liked Maximilian on a personal level,[46] Juárez refused to commute the sentence in view of the Mexicans who had been killed fighting against Maximilian's forces, and because he believed it was necessary to send a message that Mexico would not tolerate any government imposed by foreign powers. Maximilian was considered to have more potential legitimacy than other royal figures, and was unlikely to ever rule in Europe due to his elder brother. [47] The sentence was carried out in the Cerro de las Campanas at 6:40 a.m. on the morning of 19 June 1867, when Maximilian, along with Generals Miramón and Mejía, was executed by a firing squad. Maximilian never really intended to give the crown to the Iturbides because he believed that they were not of royal blood.
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